IELTS Essay: Cars Damaging the Environment

IELTS Essay: Cars Damaging the Environment

This is an IELTS writing task 2 sample answer essay on the topic of cars and damaging the environment.

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Dave

IELTS Essay: Cars Damaging the Environment

The manufacturing and use of cars damages the environment but their popularity is increasing.

Why is this?

How could this be controlled?

Even though both production and car use increase pollution, the auto industry continues to expand. This is because developing nations now have greater disposable income and governments can limit the resultant environmental damage through regulation.

The main cause underlying an increasing numbers of cars is growth in developing countries. Ownership in developed countries peaked decades ago and many European nations in particular are now adopting greener modes of transport. However, in developing nations, cars are seen as a status symbol that boost self-esteem and serve a practical travel purpose. Coupled with increased per capita GDP, the boom in car ownership is unsurprising. For example, a growing middle class in Vietnam has driven up purchases of foreign automobiles dramatically over the last decade. The demand is so great that last year a Vietnamese company introduced the first domestically produced car. This same trend is replicated around the world in developing countries.

The most impactful response is from the government. Consumers will continue to buy cars but the government has control over a range of possible environmental protective measures. For example, there could be stricter laws related to emission standards. This would cut down on the average amount of pollution from individual cars and collectively make a huge difference. Another measure would be to discourage car ownership by taxing cars heavily and improving the quality of public transportation. A good example of this would also be in Vietnam where there is a 200% tax on cars and the government is building the world’s most expensive subway system in Ho Chi Minh City. Individuals are unlikely to change their behaviour en masse so it falls to policymakers to dissuade citizens through proactive reforms and policies.

In conclusion, more cars can be explained by rising incomes globally and pragmatic solutions come from government regulation. If taken seriously, the heavy environmental toll of cars can be curbed.

Analysis

1. Even though both production and car use increase pollution, the auto industry continues to expand. 2. This is because developing nations now have greater disposable income and governments can limit the resultant environmental damage through regulation.

  1. Paraphrase the overall essay topic.
  2. Answer both questions clearly. Learn more about introductions here and two part question structure here.

1. The main cause underlying an increasing numbers of cars is growth in developing countries. 2. Ownership in developed countries peaked decades ago and many European nations in particular are now adopting greener modes of transport. 3. However, in developing nations, cars are seen as a status symbol that boost self-esteem and serve a practical travel purpose. 4. Coupled with increased per capita GDP, the boom in car ownership is unsurprising. 5. For example, a growing middle class in Vietnam has driven up purchases of foreign automobiles dramatically over the last decade. 6. The demand is so great that last year a Vietnamese company introduced the first domestically produced car. 7. This same trend is replicated around the world in developing countries.

  1. Write a clear topic sentence with your main idea at the end.
  2. Explain or give the background for your idea.
  3. Add in specific detail and don’t switch to a new idea.
  4. Include more specific supporting information.
  5. Give a specific example.
  6. Develop the example.
  7. Generalise to other countries.

1. The most impactful response is from the government. 2. Consumers will continue to buy cars but the government has control over a range of possible environmental protective measures. 3. For example, there could be stricter laws related to emission standards. 4. This would cut down on the average amount of pollution from individual cars and collectively make a huge difference. 5. Another measure would be to discourage car ownership by taxing cars heavily and improving the quality of public transportation. 6. A good example of this would also be in Vietnam where there is a 200% tax on cars and the government is building the world’s most expensive subway system in Ho Chi Minh City. 7. Individuals are unlikely to change their behaviour en masse so it falls to policymakers to dissuade citizens through proactive reforms and policies.

  1. Write another topic sentence with a new main idea at the end.
  2. Explain your main idea.
  3. Begin a specific example.
  4. Develop the example.
  5. Include another solution.
  6. Develop that solution with a specific example if possible.
  7. Conclude with a strong general statement.

1. In conclusion, more cars can be explained by rising incomes globally and pragmatic solutions come from government regulation. 2. If taken seriously, the heavy environmental toll of cars can be curbed.

  1. Summarise your main ideas.
  2. Add a final thought. Read more about conclusions here.

Vocabulary

What do the words in bold below mean?

Even though both production and car use increase pollution, the auto industry continues to expand. This is because developing nations now have greater disposable income and governments can limit the resultant environmental damage through regulation.

The main cause underlying an increasing numbers of cars is growth in developing countries. Ownership in developed countries peaked decades ago and many European nations in particular are now adopting greener modes of transport. However, in developing nations, cars are seen as a status symbol that boost self-esteem and serve a practical travel purpose. Coupled with increased per capita GDP, the boom in car ownership is unsurprising. For example, a growing middle class in Vietnam has driven up purchases of foreign automobiles dramatically over the last decade. The demand is so great that last year a Vietnamese company introduced the first domestically produced car. This same trend is replicated around the world in developing countries.

The most impactful response is from the government. Consumers will continue to buy cars but the government has control over a range of possible environmental protective measures. For example, there could be stricter laws related to emission standards. This would cut down on the average amount of pollution from individual cars and collectively make a huge difference. Another measure would be to discourage car ownership by taxing cars heavily and improving the quality of public transportation. A good example of this would also be in Vietnam where there is a 200% tax on cars and the government is building the world’s most expensive subway system in Ho Chi Minh City. Individuals are unlikely to change their behaviour en masse so it falls to policymakers to dissuade citizens through proactive reforms and policies.

In conclusion, more cars can be explained by rising incomes globally and pragmatic solutions come from government regulation. If taken seriously, the heavy environmental toll of cars can be curbed.

Answers

even though despite

production manufacturing

auto industry making cars

expand grow bigger

greater disposable income more money to spend

limit constrain

resultant environmental damage increasing climate change, polluting the environment

regulation limiting

underlying foundational

ownership have a car

peaked decades ago reach a high point a long time ago

in particular especially

adopting greener modes of transport using more environmentally friendly options

status symbol show-off

boost self-esteem feel better about yourself

serve a practical travel purpose useful

coupled with combine with

per capita GDP average income

boom increase

unsurprising no shock

growing middle class more people with money

driven up increased

dramatically substantially

demand desire

introduced premiered

domestically produced car not a foreign car

trend pattern

replicated repeated

impactful response most effective solution

consumers buyers

control over can regulate

range of possible environmental protective measures many ways to protect the environment

stricter laws better regulations

emission standards how clean a car is

cut down on reduce

average amount how much is used per person

collectively all together

huge difference big impact

measure action

discourage car ownership dissuade people from buying cars

heavily a lot

200% tax pay doble

subway system underground

en masse all together

falls to policymakers responsibility of government

dissuade discourage

proactive reforms take an active role in changing

policies laws

explained shown

globally around the world

pragmatic solutions practical countermeasures

government regulation laws

if taken seriously done well

heavy environmental toll hurts the environment a lot

curbed limited

Pronunciation

ˈiːvən ðəʊ 
prəˈdʌkʃən 
ˈɔːtəʊ ˈɪndəstri 
ɪksˈpænd
ˈgreɪtə dɪsˈpəʊzəbl ˈɪnkʌm 
ˈlɪmɪt 
rɪˈzʌltənt ɪnˌvaɪərənˈmɛntl ˈdæmɪʤ 
ˌrɛgjʊˈleɪʃən
ˌʌndəˈlaɪɪŋ 
ˈəʊnəʃɪp 
piːkt ˈdɛkeɪdz əˈgəʊ 
ɪn pəˈtɪkjʊlə 
əˈdɒptɪŋ ˈgriːnə məʊdz ɒv ˈtrænspɔːt
ˈsteɪtəs ˈsɪmbəl 
buːst sɛlf-ɪsˈtiːm 
sɜːv ə ˈpræktɪkəl ˈtrævl ˈpɜːpəs
ˈkʌpld wɪð 
pɜː ˈkæpɪtə ʤiː-diː-piː
buːm 
ˌʌnsəˈpraɪzɪŋ
ˈgrəʊɪŋ ˈmɪdl klɑːs 
ˈdrɪvn ʌp 
drəˈmætɪk(ə)li 
dɪˈmɑːnd 
ˌɪntrəˈdjuːst 
dəʊˈmɛstɪk(ə)li prəˈdjuːst kɑː
trɛnd 
ˈrɛplɪkeɪtɪd 
ˈɪmpæktf(ə)l rɪsˈpɒns 
kənˈsjuːməz 
kənˈtrəʊl ˈəʊvə 
reɪnʤ ɒv ˈpɒsəbl ɪnˌvaɪərənˈmɛntl prəˈtɛktɪv ˈmɛʒəz
ˈstrɪktə lɔːz 
ɪˈmɪʃən ˈstændədz
kʌt daʊn ɒn 
ˈævərɪʤ əˈmaʊnt 
kɒˈlɛktɪvli 
hjuːʤ ˈdɪfrəns
ˈmɛʒə 
dɪsˈkʌrɪʤ kɑːr ˈəʊnəʃɪp 
ˈhɛvɪli 
tuː ˈhʌndrəd pəˈsɛnt tæks 
ˈsʌbweɪ ˈsɪstɪm 
ɛn mæs
fɔːlz tuː ˈpɒlɪsi ˈmeɪkəz 
dɪˈsweɪd 
prəʊˈæktɪv ˌriːˈfɔːmz 
ˈpɒlɪsiz
ɪksˈpleɪnd 
ˈgləʊbəli 
prægˈmætɪk səˈluːʃənz 
ˈgʌvnmənt ˌrɛgjʊˈleɪʃən
ɪf ˈteɪkən ˈsɪərɪəsli
ˈhɛvi ɪnˌvaɪərənˈmɛntl təʊl 
kɜːbd

Vocabulary Practice

Remember and fill in the blanks:

E______________h both p______________n and car use increase pollution, the a______________y continues to e__________d. This is because developing nations now have g___________________________e and governments can l______t the r__________________________________e through r___________n.

The main cause u_____________g an increasing numbers of cars is growth in developing countries. O_____________p in developed countries p_____________________o and many European nations i______________r are now a_______________________________________t. However, in developing nations, cars are seen as a s_______________l that b______________m and s_______________________________________e. C_______________h increased p_______________________P, the b_______m in car ownership is u______________g. For example, a g_______________________s in Vietnam has d_____________p purchases of foreign automobiles d______________y over the last decade. The d___________d is so great that last year a Vietnamese company i_______________d the first d________________________r. This same t________d is r_______________d around the world in developing countries.

The most i_______________________e is from the government. C_____________s will continue to buy cars but the government has c_____________r a r_________________________________________________s. For example, there could be s_____________s related to e______________________s. This would c________________________n the a_____________________t of pollution from individual cars and c_________________y make a h__________________e. Another m_____________e would be to d______________________p by taxing cars h_____________y and improving the quality of public transportation. A good example of this would also be in Vietnam where there is a 2_____________x on cars and the government is building the world’s most expensive s____________________m in Ho Chi Minh City. Individuals are unlikely to change their behaviour e__________e so it f____________________s to d____________e citizens through p_____________________s and p_______________s.

In conclusion, more cars can be e______________d by rising incomes g___________y and p_____________________s come from g__________________________n. I____________________y, the h___________________________l of cars can be c__________d.

Listening Practice

Watch the video below to understand the idea of a carbon footprint:

Reading Practice

Learn more about the environmental impact of cars below:

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/green-guide/buying-guides/car/environmental-impact/

Speaking Practice

Answer the following related questions from the real IELTS speaking exam:

Walking (NEW BOOKLET)

  1. Do you go places on foot a lot?
  2. Did you walk more when you were younger?
  3. Why do some people prefer walking to driving a car?
  4. Do people in your country walk a lot?

Writing Practice

Write about the following topic and check with my sample answer:

When cars and cyclists use the same roads, there are often problems.

Why is this the case?

What are the solutions?

IELTS Essay: Restaurants & Food Waste

IELTS Essay: Restaurants & Food Waste

This is an IELTS writing task 2 sample answer essay on the topic of restaurants from the real IELTS exam.

Don’t miss out on my exclusive PDFs by signing up for my Patreon here.

Or my online courses here!

Dave

IELTS Essay: Restaurants & Food Waste

In many countries, people throw away a lot of food from restaurants and shops.

Why do you think people waste food in this way?

What can be done to reduce the amount of food thrown away?

Food waste is a growing global problem. It happens because people often buy more than they need and the best countermeasure would be to cut down on portion sizes.

Food waste is mainly a result of individuals ordering or purchasing too much food. Many people order extra when dining out to ensure they are not hungry at the end of the meal. Humans are a planning and predicting animal and this is a natural instinct. The same drive partly explains purchasing too much food at the supermarket but there are other possible sources. For example, ambitious shoppers intending to cook a variety of dishes during the week, may buy a lot of healthy fruits and vegetables. If they are busy or cannot summon the initiative, the produce will spoil within a few days and they will have to throw it out and make other plans.

The solution is to reduce the amount of food people eat. A reinforcing cycle of over-eating by obese consumers can lead to greater food waste. People order or buy more than they need and stuff themselves at every meal. Over time, this becomes an ingrained habit and they purchase increasingly greater quantities of food, some of which will naturally go bad or be thrown out if they cannot finish it. A good counter-example to this practice would be in France, which is famed for smaller portion sizes. Food waste is dramatically lower in France simply because people eat modest meals and are therefore more likely to eat all their food. This could be replicated in other nations if governments reformed school meals and took other key steps.

In conclusion, food waste has deep psychological roots and the best solution is for individuals to reduce the size of their average meal. A shift like this will require a concerted effort from both ordinary citizens and health officials.

Analysis

1. Food waste is a growing global problem. 2. It happens because people often buy more than they need and the best countermeasure would be to cut down on portion sizes.

  1. Paraphrase the overall essay topic.
  2. Answer both of the questions directly. Read more about introductions here.

1. Food waste is mainly a result of individuals ordering or purchasing too much food. 2. Many people order extra when dining out to ensure they are not hungry at the end of the meal. 3. Humans are a planning and predicting animal and this is a natural instinct. 4. The same drive partly explains purchasing too much food at the supermarket but there are other possible sources. 5. For example, ambitious shoppers intending to cook a variety of dishes during the week, may buy a lot of healthy fruits and vegetables. 6. If they are busy or cannot summon the initiative, the produce will spoil within a few days and they will have to throw it out and make other plans.

  1. Write a clear topic sentence with the main idea at the end.
  2. Explain or develop your main idea.
  3. Continue to explain and vary your long and short sentences.
  4. Keep developing it more deeply.
  5. Use examples to support your ideas.
  6. Conclude with the fully results of the example.

1. The solution is to reduce the amount of food people eat. 2. A reinforcing cycle of over-eating by obese consumers can lead to greater food waste. 3. People order or buy more than they need and stuff themselves at every meal. 4. Over time, this becomes an ingrained habit and they purchase increasingly greater quantities of food, some of which will naturally go bad or be thrown out if they cannot finish it. 5. A good counter-example to this practice would be in France, which is famed for smaller portion sizes. 6. Food waste is dramatically lower in France simply because people eat modest meals and are therefore more likely to eat all their food. 7. This could be replicated in other nations if governments reformed school meals and took other key steps.

  1. Answer the other question directly with a new main idea.
  2. Begin your solution.
  3. Here I give background for my solution.
  4. I give further background here.
  5. Here I use an example to show a possible solution.
  6. Develop the example.
  7. Conclude with a strong statement.

1. In conclusion, food waste has deep psychological roots and the best solution is for individuals to reduce the size of their average meal. 2. A shift like this will require a concerted effort from both ordinary citizens and health officials.

  1. Repeat your answers to both questions.
  2. Add a final thought – read more about conclusions here.

Vocabulary

What do the words in bold below mean?

Food waste is a growing global problem. It happens because people often buy more than they need and the best countermeasure would be to cut down on portion sizes.

Food waste is mainly a result of individuals ordering or purchasing too much food. Many people order extra when dining out to ensure they are not hungry at the end of the meal. Humans are a planning and predicting animal and this is a natural instinct. The same drive partly explains purchasing too much food at the supermarket but there are other possible sources. For example, ambitious shoppers intending to cook a variety of dishes during the week, may buy a lot of healthy fruits and vegetables. If they are busy or cannot summon the initiative, the produce will spoil within a few days and they will have to throw it out and make other plans.

The solution is to reduce the amount of food people eat. A reinforcing cycle of over-eating by obese consumers can lead to greater food waste. People order or buy more than they need and stuff themselves at every meal. Over time, this becomes an ingrained habit and they purchase increasingly greater quantities of food, some of which will naturally go bad or be thrown out if they cannot finish it. A good counter-example to this practice would be in France, which is famed for smaller portion sizes. Food waste is dramatically lower in France simply because people eat modest meals and are therefore more likely to eat all their food. This could be replicated in other nations if governments reformed school meals and took other key steps.

In conclusion, food waste has deep psychological roots and the best solution is for individuals to reduce the size of their average meal. A shift like this will require a concerted effort from both ordinary citizens and health officials.

Answers

growing global problem increasing issue around the world

countermeasure solution

cut down on portion sizes eat less food

mainly mostly

ensure make sure

natural instinct predisposed towards

drive partly explains desire somewhat illustrates

ambitious shoppers intending people buying more than they can eat/prepare wanting to

summon the initiative work up the effort to

produce fruit and veggies

spoil go bad

throw it out put in the trash

make other plans do something else

reinforcing cycle feedback loop

over-eating eating too much

obese consumers fat people

stuff themselves eat too much

over time gradually

ingrained habit accustomed to it

increasingly greater quantities of food larger and larger portion sizes

naturally go bad inevitably spoil

thrown out put in the trash

finish eat all

counter-example example of the opposite case

practice behaviour

smaller portion sizes less food per meal

dramatically lower much less

modest smaller

replicated repeated

reformed school meals changed what kids eat at school

took other key steps did other things

deep psychological roots part of being human

average meal normal meal

shift change

concerted effort dedicated attempt

ordinary citizens normal people

health officials those in charge of public health

Pronunciation

ˈgrəʊɪŋ ˈgləʊbəl ˈprɒbləm
ˈkaʊntəˌmɛʒə 
kʌt daʊn ɒn ˈpɔːʃən ˈsaɪzɪz
ˈmeɪnli 
ɪnˈʃʊə 
ˈnæʧrəl ˈɪnstɪŋkt
draɪv ˈpɑːtli ɪksˈpleɪnz 
æmˈbɪʃəs ˈʃɒpəz ɪnˈtɛndɪŋ 
ˈsʌmən ði ɪˈnɪʃɪətɪv
ˈprɒdjuːs 
spɔːɪl 
θrəʊ ɪt aʊt 
meɪk ˈʌðə plænz
ˌriːɪnˈfɔːsɪŋ ˈsaɪkl 
ˈəʊvər-ˈiːtɪŋ 
əʊˈbiːs kənˈsjuːməz 
stʌf ðəmˈsɛlvz 
ˈəʊvə taɪm
ɪnˈgreɪnd ˈhæbɪt 
ɪnˈkriːsɪŋli ˈgreɪtə ˈkwɒntɪtiz ɒv fuːd 
ˈnæʧrəli gəʊ bæd 
θrəʊn aʊt 
ˈfɪnɪʃ 
ˈkaʊntər-ɪgˈzɑːmpl 
ˈpræktɪs 
ˈsmɔːlə ˈpɔːʃən ˈsaɪzɪz
drəˈmætɪk(ə)li ˈləʊə 
ˈmɒdɪst 
ˈrɛplɪkeɪtɪd 
rɪˈfɔːmd skuːl miːlz 
tʊk ˈʌðə kiː stɛps
diːp ˌsaɪkəˈlɒʤɪkəl ruːts 
ˈævərɪʤ miːl
ʃɪft 
kənˈsɜːtɪd ˈɛfət 
ˈɔːdnri ˈsɪtɪznz 
hɛlθ əˈfɪʃəlz

Vocabulary Practice

Remember and fill in the blanks:

Food waste is a g______________________m. It happens because people often buy more than they need and the best c____________________e would be to c____________________________s.

Food waste is m__________y a result of individuals ordering or purchasing too much food. Many people order extra when dining out to e_______e they are not hungry at the end of the meal. Humans are a planning and predicting animal and this is a n____________________t. The same d_________________________s purchasing too much food at the supermarket but there are other possible sources. For example, a______________________________g to cook a variety of dishes during the week, may buy a lot of healthy fruits and vegetables. If they are busy or cannot s_________________________e, the p____________e will s______l within a few days and they will have to t_______________t and m_________________s.

The solution is to reduce the amount of food people eat. A r_________________e of o______________g by o_________________s can lead to greater food waste. People order or buy more than they need and s_______________________s at every meal. O___________e, this becomes an i____________________t and they purchase i__________________________________d, some of which will n________________d or be t______________t if they cannot f_________h it. A good c__________________e to this p___________e would be in France, which is famed for s__________________________s. Food waste is d______________________r in France simply because people eat m_________t meals and are therefore more likely to eat all their food. This could be r____________d in other nations if governments r____________________s and t______________________s.

In conclusion, food waste has d_________________________s and the best solution is for individuals to reduce the size of their a_________________l. A s______t like this will require a c_________________t from both o__________________s and h__________________s.

Listening Practice

Learn more about food waste below:

Reading Practice

Learn about what your city can do below:

Speaking Practice

Answer the following questions from the real IELTS speaking exam:

Food

  1. Do people in your country often eat together?
  2. Why are family meals less common today?
  3. Is this a positive or negative development?
  4. Are there any holidays in your country centred around food?
  5. Are international foods a threat to the traditional culture of your country?

Writing Practice

Write about the following related topic and then check with my sample answer:

Some believe that people will purchase a product based on their needs and advertising is not needed.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

IELTS Task 1 Essay: Line Graph (Steel)

IELTS Task 1 Essay: Line Graph (Steel)

This is an IELTS writing task 1 sample answer essay line graph about the demand for steel.

Don’t miss out on any of my exclusive PDF sample answers by signing up for my Patreon here or my online courses here.

IELTS Task 1 Essay: Line Graph (Steel)

The line charts give information about the demand for steel and number of workers employed in a country from January to December.

The charts detail demand for steel and the number of workers employed in a given country over a one year period. Looking from an overall perspective, it is readily apparent that both demand and employment fluctuated but followed similar downwards trends. By the end of the period, actual demand had overtaken production.

In the first 2 months of the year, workers (6,000), steel production (5,000) and actual demand (3,000) peaked. From there, the number of workers fell steeply to 3,000 in March and was flat through April, while production dropped below 4,000 tonnes and remained stable to July. Actual demand also decreased, though it fluctuated between 2 and 3,000 tonnes through September, before plummeting to 0 in November and recovering to 2,000 in December.

This end of year pattern was largely mirrored by both production and employment as the former crashed from a second peak of nearly 5,000 in July to under 1,000 by the end of the period (with no recovery). Employment numbers rose to 3,500 in August and had steadily subsided to 1,000 by the end of the year.

Analysis

1. The charts detail demand for steel and the number of workers employed in a given country over a one year period. 2. Looking from an overall perspective, it is readily apparent that both demand and employment fluctuated but followed similar downwards trends. By the end of the period, actual demand had overtaken production.

  1. Paraphrase what the graph shows.
  2. Write a general overview including all categories and the fully trend.
  3. Aim for 2 sentences for your overview. Read more about overviews here.

1. In the first 2 months of the year, workers (6,000), steel production (5,000) and actual demand (3,000) peaked. 2. From there, the number of workers fell steeply to 3,000 in March and was flat through April, while production dropped below 4,000 tonnes and remained stable to July. 3. Actual demand also decreased, though it fluctuated between 2 and 3,000 tonnes through September, before plummeting to 0 in November and recovering to 2,000 in December.

  1. Begin to compare and describe the data.
  2. Group as much data as possible.
  3. Compare the different lines and incluse as much data as you can.

1. This end of year pattern was largely mirrored by both production and employment as the former crashed from a second peak of nearly 5,000 in July to under 1,000 by the end of the period (with no recovery). 2. Employment numbers rose to 3,500 in August and had steadily subsided to 1,000 by the end of the year.

  1. Make sure all areas are fully covered.
  2. And that the end points are clear.

Vocabulary

What do the words in bold below mean?

The charts detail demand for steel and the number of workers employed in a given country over a one year period. Looking from an overall perspective, it is readily apparent that both demand and employment fluctuated but followed similar downwards trends. By the end of the period, actual demand had overtaken production.

In the first 2 months of the year, workers (6,000), steel production (5,000) and actual demand (3,000) peaked. From there, the number of workers fell steeply to 3,000 in March and was flat through April, while production dropped below 4,000 tonnes and remained stable to July. Actual demand also decreased, though it fluctuated between 2 and 3,000 tonnes through September, before plummeting to 0 in November and recovering to 2,000 in December.

This end of year pattern was largely mirrored by both production and employment as the former crashed from a second peak of nearly 5,000 in July to under 1,000 by the end of the period (with no recovery). Employment numbers rose to 3,500 in August and had steadily subsided to 1,000 by the end of the year.

Answers

demand need

a given country a random nation

looking from an overall perspective, it is readily apparent that overall

followed similar downwards trends had almost the same pattern of decreasing

by the end of the period at the end

overtaken become greater than

in the first 2 months of the year January, February

peaked hit a high point

from there after that

fell steeply decreased a lot

flat stable

dropped below fell under

remained stable flat, no chance

through September to the end of September

plummeting decreasing a lot

recovering getting back to its previous point

pattern trend

largely mirrored mostly the same

former crashed one mentioned before fell a lot

no recovery did not get back to the same level

steadily subsided decreased steadily

Pronunciation

dɪˈmɑːnd 
ə ˈgɪvn ˈkʌntri 
ˈlʊkɪŋ frɒm ən ˈəʊvərɔːl pəˈspɛktɪvɪt ɪz ˈrɛdɪli əˈpærənt ðæt 
ˈfɒləʊd ˈsɪmɪlə ˈdaʊnwədz trɛndz
baɪ ði ɛnd ɒv ðə ˈpɪərɪəd
ˌəʊvəˈteɪkən 
ɪn ðə fɜːst 2 mʌnθs ɒv ðə jɪə
piːkt
frɒm ðeə
fɛl ˈstiːpli 
flæt 
drɒpt bɪˈləʊ 
rɪˈmeɪnd ˈsteɪbl 
θruː sɛpˈtɛmbə
ˈplʌmɪtɪŋ 
rɪˈkʌvərɪŋ 
ˈpætən 
ˈlɑːʤli ˈmɪrəd 
ˈfɔːmə kræʃt 
nəʊ rɪˈkʌvəri
ˈstɛdɪli səbˈsaɪdɪd 

Vocabulary Practice

Remember and fill in the blanks:

The charts detail d_________d for steel and the number of workers employed in a______________y over a one year period. L________________________________________________________t both demand and employment fluctuated but f_______________________________s. B____________________________d, actual demand had o_________________n production.

I________________________________r, workers (6,000), steel production (5,000) and actual demand (3,000) p_________d. F__________e, the number of workers f_____________y to 3,000 in March and was f____t through April, while production d__________________w 4,000 tonnes and r___________________e to July. Actual demand also decreased, though it fluctuated between 2 and 3,000 tonnes t_____________________r, before p_______________g to 0 in November and r______________g to 2,000 in December.

This end of year p___________n was l_________________d by both production and employment as the f__________________d from a second peak of nearly 5,000 in July to under 1,000 by the end of the period (with n_______________y). Employment numbers rose to 3,500 in August and had s_____________________d to 1,000 by the end of the year.

Listening Practice

If you’re interested, learn about the history of iron and steel below:

Reading Practice

Learn more about the production of steel below:

https://www.thebalance.com/steel-production-2340173

Speaking Practice

Answer the following questions from the real IELTS speaking exam:

Work

  1. Do you work or are you a student?
  2. What do you like about your work?
  3. What has changed at your work since you started?
  4. Do you like to work in the morning or afternoon?

Writing Practice

Write about the following graph showing the ages of people attending concerts in the UK then check with my sample answer below:

ielts writing task 1 sample answer essay line chart
ielts writing task 1 sample answer essay line chart
IELTS Essay: Oil and Gas

IELTS Essay: Oil and Gas

This is an IELTS writing task 2 sample answer essay on the topic of demand for oil and gas and whether or not we should exploit remote areas of the Earth.

It’s a good one to practice with because topics related to the environment, economics, and natural resources are common on IELTS.

For more resources, you can sign up to my Patreon here.

Dave

IELTS Essay: Oil and Gas

The global demand for oil and gas is increasing. Some believe that we should therefore encourage the exploitation of remote areas.

Do the advantages of this outweigh the disadvantages?

Many today believe that growing demand for fossil fuels justifies the continued exploitation of remote natural landscapes. In my opinion, the advantages of this are enough to warrant its expansion.

The disadvantages all relate to environmental conservation. Firstly, there have been cases of disastrous oil spills spoiling untouched natural preserves. This occurred more than a decage ago in an isolated part of Alaska and resulted in the deaths of thousands of rare species and long-lasting damage to the ecosystem. Secondly, fossil fuel exploitation in general should not be encouraged at a time when the Earth is facing a potentially cataclysmic reckoning with the effects of climate change. The last untouched areas of the planet should be left in peace and not greedily consumed to feed a problem that is growing more dangerous daily.

On the other hand, the advantages of drilling for oil and gas in less populated regions relate to economics and safety. Many countries, particularly developing ones, are reliant on oil and gas to prop up their economies. Losing the revenue from these industries would not only affect the companies themselves but they would pay fewer taxes and employ fewer people, who would then contribute less to the consumer economy. The second justification is safety. Companies will continue to drill for oil and gas but if they do it in residential areas there is the potential for human contamination, especially when it comes to more dangerous practices such as fracking. By limiting drilling to remote regions, the human population is safely protected from the risk of spills and increased air pollution.

In conclusion, the environmental risks do not outweigh the benefits to the economy and the citizenry that accrue from remote oil and gas exploitation. There should be protocols to protect the environment but these must be balanced against humanity’s precedence over nature.

Analysis

1. Many today believe that growing demand for fossil fuels justifies the continued exploitation of remote natural landscapes. 2. In my opinion, the advantages of this are enough to warrant its expansion.

  1. Paraphrase the overall essay topic.
  2. Give a clear opinion. Read more about introductions here.

1. The disadvantages all relate to environmental conservation. 2. Firstly, there have been cases of disastrous oil spills spoiling untouched natural preserves. 3. This occurred more than a decage ago in an isolated part of Alaska and resulted in the deaths of thousands of rare species and long-lasting damage to the ecosystem. 4. Secondly, fossil fuel exploitation in general should not be encouraged at a time when the Earth is facing a potentially cataclysmic reckoning with the effects of climate change. 5. The last untouched areas of the planet should be left in peace and not greedily consumed to feed a problem that is growing more dangerous daily.

  1. Write a topic sentence with a clear main idea at the end.
  2. This question asks about advantages and disadvantages (plural) so begin writing about one disadvantage.
  3. Develop it fully.
  4. Switch to the second disadvantage.
  5. Develop that one full as well.

1. On the other hand, the advantages of drilling for oil and gas in less populated regions relate to economics and safety. 2. Many countries, particularly developing ones, are reliant on oil and gas to prop up their economies. 3. Losing the revenue from these industries would not only affect the companies themselves but they would pay fewer taxes and employ fewer people, who would then contribute less to the consumer economy. 4. The second justification is safety. Companies will continue to drill for oil and gas but if they do it in residential areas there is the potential for human contamination, especially when it comes to more dangerous practices such as fracking. 5. By limiting drilling to remote regions, the human population is safely protected from the risk of spills and increased air pollution.

  1. Write a new topic sentence with a new main idea at the end.
  2. Explain the main idea or begin an example.
  3. Develop it fully by stating the results.
  4. Move on to your second advantage.
  5. Develop it as fully as possible.

1. In conclusion, the environmental risks do not outweigh the benefits to the economy and the citizenry that accrue from remote oil and gas exploitation. 2. There should be protocols to protect the environment but these must be balanced against humanity’s precedence over nature.

  1. Summarise your main ideas and repeat your opinion.
  2. Add in a final thought or extra detail. Read more about conclusions here.

Vocabulary

What do the words in bold below mean?

Many today believe that growing demand for fossil fuels justifies the continued exploitation of remote natural landscapes. In my opinion, the advantages of this are enough to warrant its expansion.

The disadvantages all relate to environmental conservation. Firstly, there have been cases of disastrous oil spills spoiling untouched natural preserves. This occurred more than a decage ago in an isolated part of Alaska and resulted in the deaths of thousands of rare species and long-lasting damage to the ecosystem. Secondly, fossil fuel exploitation in general should not be encouraged at a time when the Earth is facing a potentially cataclysmic reckoning with the effects of climate change. The last untouched areas of the planet should be left in peace and not greedily consumed to feed a problem that is growing more dangerous daily.

On the other hand, the advantages of drilling for oil and gas in less populated regions relate to economics and safety. Many countries, particularly developing ones, are reliant on oil and gas to prop up their economies. Losing the revenue from these industries would not only affect the companies themselves but they would pay fewer taxes and employ fewer people, who would then contribute less to the consumer economy. The second justification is safety. Companies will continue to drill for oil and gas but if they do it in residential areas there is the potential for human contamination, especially when it comes to more dangerous practices such as fracking. By limiting drilling to remote regions, the human population is safely protected from the risk of spills and increased air pollution.

In conclusion, the environmental risks do not outweigh the benefits to the economy and the citizenry that accrue from remote oil and gas exploitation. There should be protocols to protect the environment but these must be balanced against humanity’s precedence over nature.

Answers

growing demand more need for

fossil fuels justifies oil and gas are good reason to

continued exploitation more and more taking advantage of

remote natural landscapes far away from civilisation locations

warrant justify

expansion doing more of something

environmental conservation protecting the environment

cases examples

disastrous oil spills really bad environmental problems

spoiling untouched natural preserves ruining pristine nature

occurred happened

isolated part not near anything else

resulted in the effect was

rare species not common kind of animal

long-lasting damage permanently hurt

ecosystem habitat

at a time when during a moment of

potentially cataclysmic reckoning possibly very bad consequences

climate change global warming

last untouched areas few remaining unspoiled pieces of nature

left in peace not bothered

greedily consumed used up

feed take from

growing more dangerous daily becoming stronger all the time

on the other hand however

less populated regions places where people don’t live

reliant depend on

prop up sustain

losing the revenue not getting money

contribute less to the consumer economy spend less

justification reason

drill dig into the Earth

residential areas places where people live

potential possibility

contamination exposure to

dangerous practices harmful methods

fracking a method of extracting natural gas/oil

limiting containing

remote regions isolated areas

safely protected kept safe

risk threat

outweigh more important

citizenry citizens, people

accrue add up to

protocols rules

balanced against weighed against

precedence over more important than

Pronunciation

ˈgrəʊɪŋ dɪˈmɑːnd |
ˈfɒsl̩ ˈfjuːəlz ˈdʒʌstɪfaɪz |
kənˈtɪnjuːd ˌeksploɪˈteɪʃn̩ |
rɪˈməʊt ˈnætʃrəl ˈlændskeɪps |
ˈwɒrənt |
ɪkˈspænʃn̩ |
ɪnˌvaɪərənˈmentl̩ ˌkɒnsəˈveɪʃn̩ |
ˈkeɪsɪz |
dɪˈzɑːstrəs ˈoɪl spɪlz |
ˈspɔɪlɪŋ ʌnˈtʌtʃt ˈnætʃrəl prɪˈzɜːvz |
əˈkɜːd |
ˈaɪsəleɪtɪd pɑːt |
rɪˈzʌltɪd ɪn |
reə ˈspiːʃiːz |
lɒŋ ˈlɑːstɪŋ ˈdæmɪdʒ |
ˈiːkəʊsɪstəm |
ət ə ˈtaɪm wen |
pəˈtenʃəli ˌkætəˈklɪzmɪk ˈrekənɪŋ |
ˈklaɪmət tʃeɪndʒ |
lɑːst ʌnˈtʌtʃt ˈeəriəz |
left ɪn piːs |
ˈɡriːdɪli kənˈsjuːmd |
fiːd |
ˈgrəʊɪŋ mɔː ˈdeɪndʒərəs ˈdeɪli |
ˈɒn ði ˈʌðə hænd |
les ˈpɒpjʊleɪtɪd ˈriːdʒənz |
rɪˈlaɪənt | | prɒp ʌp |
ˈluːzɪŋ ðə ˈrevənjuː |
kənˈtrɪbjuːt les tu ðə kənˈsjuːmər ɪˈkɒnəmi |
ˌdʒʌstɪfɪˈkeɪʃn̩ |
drɪl |
ˌrezɪˈdenʃl̩ ˈeəriəz |
pəˈtenʃl̩ |
kənˌtæmɪˈneɪʃn̩ |
ˈdeɪndʒərəs ˈpræktɪsɪz |
ˈfrækɪŋ |
ˈlɪmɪtɪŋ |
rɪˈməʊt ˈriːdʒənz |
ˈseɪfli prəˈtektɪd |
rɪsk |
ˌaʊtˈweɪ |
ˈsɪtɪzənri |
əˈkruː |
ˈprəʊtəkɒlz |
ˌbælənst əˈɡenst |
ˈpresɪdəns ˈəʊvə |

Vocabulary Practice

Remember and fill in the blanks:

Many today believe that g________________d for f____________________s the c_________________________n of r__________________________s. In my opinion, the advantages of this are enough to w_____________t its e_____________n.

The disadvantages all relate to e______________________n. Firstly, there have been c_____s of d______________________s s_________________________________s. This o__________d more than a decage ago in an i____________t of Alaska and r___________n the deaths of thousands of r_____________s and l______________________e to the e___________m. Secondly, fossil fuel exploitation in general should not be encouraged a______________n the Earth is facing a p________________________________g with the effects of c__________________e. The l_____________________s of the planet should be l______________________e and not g____________________d to f______d a problem that is g_________________________y.

O_______________________d, the advantages of drilling for oil and gas in l________________________________s relate to economics and safety. Many countries, particularly developing ones, are r___________t on oil and gas to p___________p their economies. L__________________e from these industries would not only affect the companies themselves but they would pay fewer taxes and employ fewer people, who would then c____________________________________y. The second j______________n is safety. Companies will continue to d_____l for oil and gas but if they do it in r_____________________s there is the p___________l for human c________________n, especially when it comes to more d_________________s such as f_____________g. By l___________g drilling to r______________s, the human population is s_______________d from the r____k of spills and increased air pollution.

In conclusion, the environmental risks do not o____________h the benefits to the economy and the c____________y that a_________e from remote oil and gas exploitation. There should be p____________s to protect the environment but these must be b________________t humanity’s p___________________r nature.

Listening Practice

Learn more about drilling in Alaska below:

Reading Practice

Learn more about remote drilling here:

https://www.wsj.com/articles/drillers-go-remote-as-pandemic-reshapes-oil-business-11596369600

Speaking Practice

Answer the following questions from the real IELTS speaking exam about scenery:

Scenery

  1. Are there many places in your hometown to see nice scenery?
  2. When you travel, do you stay in rooms with good views?
  3. Would you like to live in a house with beautiful scenery around it?
  4. Why do people like taking pictures of the scenery?

Writing Practice

Write about the following topic then check with my sample answer:

Developing the economy will always damage the environment.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

IELTS Essay: International Cooperation

IELTS Essay: International Cooperation

This is an IELTS writing task 2 sample answer essay on the topic of international cooperation from the real IELTS exam.

For more essays, check out my Patreon or my other services here.

Dave

IELTS Essay: International Cooperation

Many today feel that most urgent problems can only be solved by international cooperation.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

There are those who claim that we can only solve pressing global issues today if countries work in concert. In my opinion, international cooperation holds some promise but it is difficult to align the priorities of self-interested nations.

Proponents argue that global issues require active participation from all countries. The best, most recent example of this is climate change. Threats to the environment are becoming more dire annually and this affects every nation on Earth equally. Therefore, the best solutions involve signing international accords. These agreements force nations to abide by certain regulations and meet benchmarks in order to form a cohesive, global policy that can mitigate and reverse the effects of climate change. If many governments are unwilling to commit, it is unlikely that individual nations will then have the desire to make drastic changes and very little might be done to curb an imminent global catastrophe.

However, the accords mentioned above have been notorious failures as each nation has its own individual priorities. Many developed nations that already have well-developed green industries and eco-friendly policies in place are happy to sign agreements that benefit both the Earth and their own financial interests. Other nations, chiefly in the Middle East where their economies are reliant on fossil fuel production and in developing countries where the economic consequences would be dire, are less enthusiastic. Many poorer countries can also justly argue that they contributed little to the current climate problems in the past so it is unfair to hinder their development now. This applies for issues outside climate change as nations will always be in conflict and international cooperation is therefore an impractical solution to important problems.

In conclusion, though the entire planet working in tandem would be an ideal approach, it will typically fail due to competing interests. It is more important that countries act on their own or with like-minded nations and not push for global reforms.

Analysis

1. There are those who claim that we can only solve pressing global issues today if countries work in concert. 2. In my opinion, international cooperation holds some promise but it is difficult to align the priorities of self-interested nations.

  1. Paraphrase the overall essay topic.
  2. Write a clear opinion. Read more about writing introductions here.

1. Proponents argue that global issues require active participation from all countries. 2. The best, most recent example of this is climate change. 3. Threats to the environment are becoming more dire annually and this affects every nation on Earth equally. 4. Therefore, the best solutions involve signing international accords. 5. These agreements force nations to abide by certain regulations and meet benchmarks in order to form a cohesive, global policy that can mitigate and reverse the effects of climate change. 6. If many governments are unwilling to commit, it is unlikely that individual nations will then have the desire to make drastic changes and very little might be done to curb an imminent global catastrophe.

  1. Write a clear topic sentence with your main idea at the end.
  2. Begin a specific example.
  3. Develop your example.
  4. State the results to keep developing it.
  5. Don’t switch to a new example – keep developing the same one.
  6. State your final conclusions.

1. However, the accords mentioned above have been notorious failures as each nation has its own individual priorities. 2. Many developed nations that already have well-developed green industries and eco-friendly policies in place are happy to sign agreements that benefit both the Earth and their own financial interests. 3. Other nations, chiefly in the Middle East where their economies are reliant on fossil fuel production and in developing countries where the economic consequences would be dire, are less enthusiastic. 4. Many poorer countries can also justly argue that they contributed little to the current climate problems in the past so it is unfair to hinder their development now. 5. This applies for issues outside climate change as nations will always be in conflict and international cooperation is therefore an impractical solution to important problems.

  1. Write another topic sentence with a new main idea at the end.
  2. Explain your main idea.
  3. Give specific examples as I do here.
  4. Develop those examples as full as possible.
  5. Generalise to other situations if your example was very specific.

1. In conclusion, though the entire planet working in tandem would be an ideal approach, it will typically fail due to competing interests. 2. It is more important that countries act on their own or with like-minded nations and not push for global reforms.

  1. Summarise your main ideas and repeat your opinion.
  2. Include a final thought/detail.

Vocabulary

What do the words in bold below mean?

There are those who claim that we can only solve pressing global issues today if countries work in concert. In my opinion, international cooperation holds some promise but it is difficult to align the priorities of self-interested nations.

Proponents argue that global issues require active participation from all countries. The best, most recent example of this is climate change. Threats to the environment are becoming more dire annually and this affects every nation on Earth equally. Therefore, the best solutions involve signing international accords. These agreements force nations to abide by certain regulations and meet benchmarks in order to form a cohesive, global policy that can mitigate and reverse the effects of climate change. If many governments are unwilling to commit, it is unlikely that individual nations will then have the desire to make drastic changes and very little might be done to curb an imminent global catastrophe.

However, the accords mentioned above have been notorious failures as each nation has its own individual priorities. Many developed nations that already have well-developed green industries and eco-friendly policies in place are happy to sign agreements that benefit both the Earth and their own financial interests. Other nations, chiefly in the Middle East where their economies are reliant on fossil fuel production and in developing countries where the economic consequences would be dire, are less enthusiastic. Many poorer countries can also justly argue that they contributed little to the current climate problems in the past so it is unfair to hinder their development now. This applies for issues outside climate change as nations will always be in conflict and international cooperation is therefore an impractical solution to important problems.

In conclusion, though the entire planet working in tandem would be an ideal approach, it will typically fail due to competing interests. It is more important that countries act on their own or with like-minded nations and not push for global reforms.

Answers

claim argue

solve pressing global issues fix problems affecting the whole world

in concert working together

international cooperation globally working together

holds some promise might work

align get on the same page

priorities what they value

self-interested nations selfish countries

proponents advocates

active participation committing fully

climate change global warming

threats potential dangers

becoming more dire annually getting more serious every year

signing international accords agreeing to global pacts

agreements pacts, accords

abide by follow

regulations rules

meet benchmarks reach goals

cohesive unified

global policy plan for the whole Earth

mitigate lessen

reverse fix

commit choose to participate

drastic changes big reforms

curb slow down

imminent global catastrophe coming soon big problems

notorious failures famously haven’t worked

individual priorities their own interests

well-developed green industries solar, wind, electric, etc.

eco-friendly policies in place already have clean energy laws

financial interests invested in

reliant depend on

fossil fuel production oil and gas

economic consequences hurt their economy

dire very bad

less enthusiastic not excited for

justly argue rightly claim

contributed little don’t give much

hinder their development hold back their progress

applies is the case for

conflict not in agreement

impractical solution won’t work

entire completely

working in tandem working together

ideal approach perfect solution

competing interests in conflict

like-minded nations countries that think the same way

push for global reforms try to make changes the whole world follows

Pronunciation

kleɪm 
sɒlv ˈprɛsɪŋ ˈgləʊbəl ˈɪʃuːz 
ɪn ˈkɒnsə(ː)t
ˌɪntə(ː)ˈnæʃənl kəʊˌɒpəˈreɪʃən 
həʊldz sʌm ˈprɒmɪs 
əˈlaɪn 
praɪˈɒrɪtiz 
sɛlf-ˈɪntrɪstɪd ˈneɪʃənz
prəˈpəʊnənts 
ˈæktɪv pɑːˌtɪsɪˈpeɪʃən 
ˈklaɪmɪt ʧeɪnʤ
θrɛts 
bɪˈkʌmɪŋ mɔː ˈdaɪər ˈænjʊəli 
ˈsaɪnɪŋ ˌɪntə(ː)ˈnæʃənl əˈkɔːdz
əˈgriːmənts 
əˈbaɪd baɪ 
ˌrɛgjʊˈleɪʃənz 
miːt ˈbɛnʧmɑːks 
kəʊˈhiːsɪv
ˈgləʊbəl ˈpɒlɪsi 
ˈmɪtɪgeɪt 
rɪˈvɜːs 
kəˈmɪt
ˈdræstɪk ˈʧeɪnʤɪz 
kɜːb 
ˈɪmɪnənt ˈgləʊbəl kəˈtæstrəfi
nəʊˈtɔːrɪəs ˈfeɪljəz 
ˌɪndɪˈvɪdjʊəl praɪˈɒrɪtiz
wɛl-dɪˈvɛləpt griːn ˈɪndəstriz 
ˈiːkəʊ-ˈfrɛndli ˈpɒlɪsiz ɪn pleɪs 
faɪˈnænʃəl ˈɪntrɪsts
rɪˈlaɪənt 
ˈfɒsl fjʊəl prəˈdʌkʃən 
ˌiːkəˈnɒmɪk ˈkɒnsɪkwənsɪz 
ˈdaɪə
lɛs ɪnˌθjuːzɪˈæstɪk
ˈʤʌstli ˈɑːgjuː 
kənˈtrɪbju(ː)tɪd ˈlɪtl 
ˈhaɪndə ðeə dɪˈvɛləpmənt 
əˈplaɪz 
ˈkɒnflɪkt 
ɪmˈpræktɪkəl səˈluːʃən 
ɪnˈtaɪə 
ˈwɜːkɪŋ ɪn ˈtændəm 
aɪˈdɪəl əˈprəʊʧ
kəmˈpiːtɪŋ ˈɪntrɪsts
ˈlaɪkˈmaɪndɪd ˈneɪʃənz 
pʊʃ fɔː ˈgləʊbəl ˌriːˈfɔːmz

Vocabulary Practice

Remember and fill in the blanks:

There are those who c_______m that we can only s___________________________s today if countries work i____________t. In my opinion, i_____________________n h_______________________e but it is difficult to a_______n the p_____________s of s______________________s.

P________________s argue that global issues require a_____________________n from all countries. The best, most recent example of this is c________________e. T__________s to the environment are b___________________________y and this affects every nation on Earth equally. Therefore, the best solutions involve s_______________________s. These a__________________s force nations to a____________y certain r_____________s and m_____________________s in order to form a c____________e, g_______________y that can m___________e and r__________e the effects of climate change. If many governments are unwilling to c____________t, it is unlikely that individual nations will then have the desire to make d_______________s and very little might be done to c_____b an i________________________e.

However, the accords mentioned above have been n__________________s as each nation has its own i_____________________s. Many developed nations that already have w_____________________________s and e_____________________________e are happy to sign agreements that benefit both the Earth and their own f____________________s. Other nations, chiefly in the Middle East where their economies are r___________t on f_______________________n and in developing countries where the e________________________s would be d____e, are l_____________________c. Many poorer countries can also j____________e that they c_________________e to the current climate problems in the past so it is unfair to h______________________t now. This a__________s for issues outside climate change as nations will always be in c___________t and international cooperation is therefore an i_____________________n to important problems.

In conclusion, though the e________e planet w________________m would be an i_______________h, it will typically fail due to c___________________s. It is more important that countries act on their own or with l____________________s and not p_____________________s.

Listening Practice

Learn below about how the United Nations work – a potential good example in your writing:

Reading Practice

Read more about failed talks related to climate change from The New York Times below:

Speaking Practice

Answer the following questions from the real speaking exam related to the environment:

Environment (NEW BOOKLET)

  1. Why do people throw rubbish the streets?
  2. How can people be encouraged to not litter?
  3. What are the results of littering?
  4. What steps has your government taken to make people pick up after themselves?
  5. Do the efforts of a single person have an impact on the world as a whole?

Writing Practice

Write about the following related topic and check with my sample answer:

Some believe that we should invent a new language for international communication.

Do the advantages of this outweigh the disadvantages?